# Explore variable

From the `Analysis`

menu choose `Explore variable`

, and choose the variable(s) you want to analyze, then hit OK.

- Optionally, uncheck the Frequencies, if you want to skip that analysis.
- Optionally, change the central tendency value, if your hypothesis is a different value.

The following values and graphs will be displayed (see also the common elements of the results):

## Raw data

Results | For interval data | For ordinal data | For nominal data |
---|---|---|---|

Sample size | Number of observed and missing cases | Number of observed and missing cases | Number of observed and missing cases |

Raw data | Dot plot | Dot plot of the order of the values | Histogram |

## Sample properties

Results | For interval data | For ordinal data | For nominal data |
---|---|---|---|

Frequencies | Table of all values in the variable with the following details: * Value * Frequency * Relative frequency (percentage of that value of all cases) * Cumulative frequency * Cumulative relative frequency |
Table of all values in the variable with the following details: * Value * Frequency * Relative frequency (percentage of that value of all cases) * Cumulative frequency * Cumulative relative frequency |
Table of all values in the variable with the following details: * Value * Frequency * Relative frequency (percentage of that value of all cases) |

Descriptive statistics | Mean Standard deviation Skewness Kurtosis Range Maximum Upper quartile Median Lower quartile Minimum |
Maximum Upper quartile Median Lower quartile Minimum |
Variation ratio |

Graphs of the data | Combined graph of histogram, individual data on x axes and box plot | Combined graph of histogram, individual data on x axes and box plot of the order of the values |

## Population properties

Results | For interval data | For ordinal data | For nominal data |
---|---|---|---|

Normality | * Shapiro-Wilk test * Histogram with normal distribution (normal distribution has the same average and standard deviation as the data) * Q-Q plot |
(Only for interval variables) | (Only for interval variables) |

Parameter estimation | * Mean and its confidence interval * Standard deviation and its confidence interval |
Median and its confidence interval | Confidence interval of the relative frequencies (multinomial proportions with Goodman method) |

Graphs of the population parameters | Graph with mean and confidence interval or median for non-normal variable | Graph with median | |

Hypothesis test and sensitivity power analyses | If the data are normal (measured with Shapiro-Wilk test), then one-sample t-test and (new in v2.3) Bayesian one-sample t-test, otherwise Wilcoxon signed-rank test (see CogStat specific details) For one-sample t-test sensitivity power analyses |
Wilcoxon signed-rank test (see CogStat specific details) |